Thursday, May 21, 2020

Living Up To Societies Gender Stereotype - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1441 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/12 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Stereotypes Essay Did you like this example? When men are described as strong, independent, brave, and tough. Women are described as submissive, sensitive, talkative, and maternal. Stereotype is defined by a standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced attitude, or uncritical judgment (Merriam-Webster).There are many stereotypes to be held about gender roles and their impact on men and women. Even though biology determines sex, these stereotypical roles are learned norms for society. There are many biological differences between male and female, and gender is viewed as a social position that affects ones mental development. Gender roles are subject to change over time just as societies mental development changes with time, stated in Gender roles and gender role conflicts (Pearlstein). These stereotypes are faced by society every day, young children watch their parents and role models and are receptible to the actions seen. Claire Vaye Watkins portrays gender roles in her short stories, The Last Thing We Need and Wish You Were Here. The two short stories go hand in hand with both lead characters not meeting the standards society has in place for their genders. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Living Up To Societies Gender Stereotype" essay for you Create order When Wish You Were Here started, lead character, Marin and her husband live a happy life until they move to this adobe (101) town where satisfactory seems to subside and is described by Marin that she feels this little town tries too hard (101). The story goes on as the couple have conceived a child, this is the sight of gender roles shown in the story. Along with the growing child in Marins body comes the growing of arguments and tension between the couple, the story says Before the child is anything, it is a catalyst for fights.(102) This is explained by Pearlstein, Researchers have found that the gender roles of married couples tend to become more clearly defined following the birth of a child. Often the woman assumes the primary responsibility for child care and the greater part of the housework. This is not what happens in Watkins story; although, readers are shown bits and pieces of Marins maternal instincts, Marin does not care much about eating healthy, exercising, or compromising on things to be shown to the child once in this world. Her husband, Carter, wants to know all the details about Marins action through the day and everything that could potentially affect their child. He is very involved, and took the maternal position in the story once the child, referred to as It(107), was born. He is a hand on a father who wanted a say so in his childs life and the day to day variables affecting him. The story uses Carter taking this strong interest in his child as a way to tear down the stereotypical father who would be taking the role as bringing income for the family and allowing the mother to presume the responsibility of the children. In the same way, the story shows Marin as a mom who does not take the maternal job as Pearlstein describes womens roles often are. This continuing theme of gender roles being taken lightly follows as Marin drinks more than a few beers and smokes a joint. This is not the image of mothers that come to mind; otherwise imagined as a traditional image of a woman with combed hair, and a nicely matched outfit in the kitchen cooking or helping her children, not kicking back smoking a joint and drinking beer. This shows how societies views on what women and men shall be doing affect the views on how genders should act and what roles those genders shall be responsible for. Watkins short story in Battleborn, The Last Thing We Need starts with a male lead crumbling beneath the pressure of his innocence being taken away too soon and having to become a masculine figure who was too much, too soon for Thomas Grey. The narrator shows the readers the wavering mental stance of Grey as the story is a compilation of letters Grey has written to an owner of a Chevy Chevelle, a ?66 (26). Grey found this vehicle wrecked and abandoned, with pictures and letters in the inside; he sees more than a glimpse of the owner. He sees a glimpse of his late childhood, a glimpse of being in high school, working a night shift at a gas station where a boy in a small town drives up in a Chevy Chevelle 66 and comes in with a gun. The fucking money, Frankie said (35). In this moment Thomas Grey grabs the before mentioned gun from under the counter, and as he pulls the trigger as the fast moving bullet leaves the barrel so does Thomas Greys innocence leave him. Thomas Grey is told over and over he did the right thing, but this does not clear him of the guilt he feels for his actions. This moment in his life follows him to college to meeting his wife and keeping the encasing action to himself. The letters written to a man never met by Grey, someone who the story does not answer the questions of if he is still alive, receiving the letters or the relevance to the man; the only connection and information given is that he is the owner of the car that brings back this awful life changing event in the narrators life. This moment in Greys life brings him to lie, run away, and makes him a coward to the past. In the article The Burden of Being a Man in a Patriarchal Society, Strength was found to be prime masculine stereotype in men this is what is expected and Grey doesnt show this with his weary letters to the man unknown to him and the obsession to a car that his wife describes as That man, the one who knows a 66 when he sees one, thats not the man she married(37). Expectations of men are explained as, Once a boy grows, his habits of dressing, eating, attitudes, and relationships are all socialized constantly with the thought of masculinity. (Adil) Thomas Grey grew into a man with this daunting life that a rightful action affects his daily roles, as a father, as a husband, and as a man. Conforming to societies gender roles is how genders learn the difference between what society deems fit for their themselves.Human beings begin to develop gender identities very early in life as they pick up on cues and clues given off from the sociocultural contexts in which they find themselves. As people and institutions demonstrate socially appropriate ways of being male or female, children become apprentices and learn what it means to be a boy or girl in their culture(Csinos). The teaching of gender specific roles begins immediately with infancy. This continues as the child grows, mothers and fathers play roughly with boy children than with girl children. As children continue to grow boys are supposed to run errands earlier than are girls. Boys are told boys dont cry, and they are to control their more feminine emotions, while girls are taught to embrace their emotions. Gender roles taught to children conform them into the men and women society expects them to be, with the exclusion of a few, including Marin, Carter, and Thomas Grey. Being masculine or feminine is a norm learned from values society forces upon men and women every day. Everyone is conformed into these norms, and it is up to the people to decide how they grow with what they have been taught and shown, or will the people dismay from the norms and become a maternal figure as a father or become a weak man, who to a reader could be mentally unstable. It is up to the people to decide to fall into the gender roles or to create personal gender roles. Works Cited Adil, Farah, et al. The Burden of Being a Man in a Patriarchal Society. Journal of Arts Social Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, Dec. 2017, pp. 57â€Å"70. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.selu.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=a9hAN=128207430. Csinos, David M. Will Boys Be Boys and Girls Be Girls? Correcting Gender Stereotypes Through Ministry with Children. Priscilla Papers, vol. 31, no. 4, Oct. 2017, pp. 21â€Å"26. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.selu.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=rlhAN=126124237. Pearlstein, Elyssa. Gender Roles and Gender Role Conflicts. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health, 2013. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.selu.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=ersAN=93871992. Stereotype. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, 2004. Watkins, Claire Vaye. Battleborn. New York: Riverhead Books, 2012.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Motivation Theory X - 4097 Words

Motivation Theory X Foundation of todays organizations. These theories go back to the turn of the century and in some cases are considered by the uninformed to be simply fads which come and go. As I have discovered, these theories are rather the steps on a ladder which continually takes us higher and higher. Douglas McGregor in his book, The Human Side of Enterprise published in 1960 has examined theories on behavior of individuals at work, and he has formulated two models which he calls Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X Assumptions The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough. The†¦show more content†¦Self directed work teams have also become one of the more changing approaches to employee involvement, and has been increasing in popularity within the last several years. Companies such as Proctor Gamble, Digital Equipmen t, General Mills, Federal Express and other well known companies, are reorganizing their employees into self directed work teams. In a recent survey, 476 Fortune 500 companies found that although only 7% of the work force is organized into self directed work teams, management at half of these companies said that they will be relying on them more in years ahead. (Cotton, 1993). Establishing Self-Directed Work Teams. There are nine basic steps in establishing self-directed work teams:  · Developing a shared vision,  · Empowerment  · Training  · Presence of a supportive culture  · Developing performance expectations and feedback  · Establishing boundaries  · Developing an appropriate pay system  · Constructing the appropriate physical layout of facilities (where applicable)  · Developing friendly union interaction. (Berger, 1998),(Cotton, 1993). The benefits I have witness at this company from utilizing these theory Y employee empowerment methods are increased morale from a more satisfying and effective workplace. More personal pride in the quality of the product we have at Harbinger. Although there are some noted disadvantages to self directed teams such as some team members unwillingness to change theirShow MoreRelatedMotivation Theory X And Theory1859 Words   |  8 PagesMotivation Theory X Motivation Theory X Foundation of today s organizations. These theories go back to the turn of the century and in some cases are considered by the uninformed to be simply fads which come and go. As I have discovered, these theories are rather the steps on a ladder which continually takes us higher and higher. 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This report will discuss relevant management techniques and theories that relate to Les Mills current situation. ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR McGREGOR’S X AND Y THEORY McGregors X and Y theory are his model that he used to urge managers to move away from the set of assumptions he called Theory X (people dislike work, lack ambition, prefer to be led than lead) and towards Theory Y. Theory Y assumes people are willing to work, capable of self-control, thrive when given responsibilityRead MoreThe Theory X And Theory Y985 Words   |  4 PagesDouglas McGregor, a social psychologist in the 1960’s, developed two theories for workplace employees (Theory X and Theory Y, 1996-2016). Theory X describes employees as unmotivated, irresponsible, they need to be controlled, and they dislike working. Theory Y describes employees as responsible, enthusiastic, motivated, and imaginative. As an employee, not in a Management position, I can say I appreciate a manager who follows the Theory Y description. Since I feel that way as an employee, I will strive

Protect Traditional Architecture Free Essays

These days, different ways are being taken to protect cultural identity. Obviously, not only is much contribution made to maintain old houses but also rules of laws associated with cultural protection are changed for the better. Some people even say that new buildings are right to be set up in the conventionalway. We will write a custom essay sample on Protect Traditional Architecture or any similar topic only for you Order Now I seem to be one of opponents who believe that the action can be unsuitable in our world. One of the main reasons is that most of traditional buildings, in my nation, that offer provide few rooms can hardly hard to meet the demands for housing as increasing numbers of people pour into the city. Compared to before, today’s population has doubled and even trebled, which puts seriouspressure on housing supply. As a result, new buildings must be substituted for old ones that have more efficient utility, even for some old buildings that have been damaged seriously. No doubts that building or maintaining traditional buildings is very essential to raise art sense and increase choices of people’s housing. Plus, these old houses are believed as very important resources to attract international visitors. However, the proportionof traditional houses has to be under control, and otherwise the housing of citizens is badly affected. Overall, my view is that cultural identity is so preciousthat more efforts and measures should be taken but carefully. The excellent tradition helps with deep understanding of history, and educates youths. Nevertheless a simple and recklessbehavior. that new buildings are built in a typical way does more harm than good in the improvement of people’s being. How to cite Protect Traditional Architecture, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

John Wesley Essays - Anglican Saints, Methodism, Apocalypticists

John Wesley ?Making the Gospel Live? The ideas of Christianity before the time of John Wesley were definitely present, but not very defined or acknowledged. The Christian faith was very unstable and many common people were not sure of what to believe when it came to religion and faith. John Wesley was minister of the Church of England. Christian Faith was a great power that entered the hearts of men and women, which transformed their lives, when people were willing to accept the transformation to Christianity. John Wesley felt the power of the Christian Faith when he listened to a preacher in London on May 1738 when he was a young man. Wesley was then currently 35 years old, and was unsure of the work that should be done in the church. He was not sure what the standards were and whether he should preach in parish. He made up his mind that he would preach his congregations to anyone who was willing to listen and anywhere. He would travel anywhere for his beliefs to enter the hearts of people. For the next fifty years Wesley traveled all around England and Britain, especially in the Isles. Wesley would preach wherever he could find an audience, if there were no churches he would preach in graveyards, workshops, village greens, shops, water fronts, busy markets and stables and in some cases on a chair in the street. There were records that suggest he once preached on top of a pigsty in a stable, just outside of Winchester. It was estimated that through Wesley's travels, he had covered 250 000 miles, and preached around 40 thousand times or more. John Wesley preached his last sermon when he was 87 years old, in Sussex. It was an open air sermon and many believed his preaching had changed their lives. Many people admired Wesley's faith and were truly inspired by his words. Wesley never intended to form a new Christian church; although this occurred after his death. When Wesley and his younger brother had been at Oxford University, they gathered together and formed a small group of students who gathered together and shared their ideas about religion and faith. Fellow schoolmates for this; often teased them. Their nickname was the ?Holy Club.' The ?Holy Club' was very serious and insisted on keeping to a serious routine of prayer and bible studies. Although the ?Holy Club' was a harmless nickname, it led on to be the title for the new Christian Church. John Wesley also had very strong views on the public and the standards of living that had been occurring in Englandfro almost one hundred years. Wesley persisted in voicing his feelings of equal rights for all human beings. Wesley had helped Lord Shaftsbury, (other wise known as Anthony Ashley Cooper) in helping to raise the living standards of England. One important factor he changed were the cotton mills; also known as the ?dark satanic mills of England.' Children as young as six were used for slave labor and were treated very poorly. The children were crowed into workhouses, which were over come with diseases and crime. They were beaten if orders were not obeyed, and the food supplies were often very short, causing malnourishment. Anthony Ashley Cooper was a strong Christian believer. Lord Shaftsbury visited the decaying mills and was an appalled by the state of them. John Wesley was a true Christian believer who helped to lift the living standards of England along with Anthony Ashley Cooper. John Wesley's preaching all over Britain and England, gave faith to many people during his sermons, and his ideas of Christianity were greatly accepted by many in the English society. His wise words during his sermons gave a lot of faith. Wesley and his move to branch from the Christian church contributed to the stability of Christianity in England. Although Wesley was oblivious to the changes that he had made to the English Church when he was alive; after his death the many things that he had accomplished shone through and he was known as a great contributor to the new English Church. Bibliography 1. Religion Discovered, AL Milner, Man and Macmillan, 1998 Religion

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Owens Valley Aquaduct essays

Owens Valley Aquaduct essays Two hundred and fifty miles north of the busy streets of Los Angeles, in Inyo County, lay the serene Owens Valley. The Owens Valley is a vast terrain that is bounded by the towering Sierra Nevada mountain range at one end and the barren Death Valley desert at its other end. As the snowfall from the peaks of the Sierra Nevadas annually transforms itself into water, the Owens River drains the downpour and flows profusely through the valley. The Owens Lake would routinely capture this stream and store the rivers yearly deposits, but the route of the stream was redirected. In 1905, an avaricious project was contrived by the political agendas of the powerful moguls behind the Los Angeles Water Company, building the Los Angeles Aqueduct.(Davis, Margaret) The project was masterminded by Fred Eaton and William Mulholland to foster the growth of the large metropolis included a larger water supply, and they were willing to achieve their goals by any means necessary. They found their water supply in the Owens Valley. However, the acquisition of the water was surrounded by red tape. Despite the obstacles that stood in their way, the two men found a way to fulfill their vision at expense of the Owens Valley community. Once a fecund and fertile region that was home to many small, prosperous farms and ranches, the Owens Valley has been stripped of its main resource due to the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. At the turn of the century, Los Angeles began to thrive in its economic ventures. The metropolis was slowly beginning to become focal point of tremendous business activity. As the city boomed, business leaders began to envision the endless potential of prosperity. The population growth was surging. People were flocking to the area in great numbers. The Los Angeles Water Company quickly realized that an auspicious opportunity was to be had and warned the city of need of a subsidiary water supply to sustain its growth....

Monday, March 2, 2020

Best Character Analysis Myrtle Wilson - The Great Gatsby

Best Character Analysis Myrtle Wilson - The Great Gatsby SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips In most books and movies, the â€Å"other woman† – the woman having an affair with a married man – is often painted as a villain. But what about in The Great Gatsby, a novel in which both married women (Myrtle Wilson and Daisy Buchanan) are having affairs? Especially given that one (Daisy) ends up killing the other (Myrtle), is Myrtle just a one-note â€Å"other woman,† or is there more to her? Myrtle’s role in the story isn’t as large as Daisy’s, Gatsby’s, or Tom’s. However, she is crucial to the plot of the story, and especially to its tragic conclusion. Find out more about Myrtle’s role in Gatsby in this guide! Article Roadmap Myrtleas a character Physical description Myrtle's history before the novel begins Actions in the novel Character Analysis Myrtle quotes Common discussion topics and essay ideas Quick Note on Our Citations Our citation format in this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We're using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for students with our copy of the book. To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of chapter), or use the search function if you're using an online or eReader version of the text. Myrtle Wilson's Physical Description Then I heard footsteps on thestairs and in a moment the thickish figure of a woman blocked out the light from the office door. She was in the middle thirties, and faintly stout, but she carried her surplus flesh sensuously as some women can. Her face, above a spotted dress of dark blue crepe-de-chine, contained no facet or gleam of beauty but there was an immediately perceptible vitality about her as if the nerves of her body were continually smouldering. She smiled slowly and walking through her husband as if he were a ghost shook hands with Tom, looking him flush in the eye. (2.15) Unlike Nick’s description of Daisy, which focuses on her voice, mannerisms, and charm, and unlike his description of Jordan, which focuses on her posture and athleticism, Nick’s description of Myrtle focuses almost entirely on her body itself. Perhaps this fits with her role as Tom’s mistress, but it also indicates Nick sees little in Myrtle in terms of intellect or personality. This description also speaks to the strong physical attraction between Tom and Myrtle that undergirds their affair. This attraction serves as a foil to the more deep-seated emotional attraction between Gatsby and Daisy, the novel’s central affair. Myrtle Before the Novel Begins We don’t know a ton about Myrtle Wilson’s background except what we can gather from the passing comments from other characters. For example, we get the sense Myrtleloved her husband when they got married, but has since been disappointed by his lack of cash and social status, and now feels stifled by her twelve-year marriage: "I married him because I thought he was a gentleman," she said finally. "I thought he knew something about breeding, but he wasn't fit to lick my shoe." "You were crazy about him for a while," said Catherine. "Crazy about him!" cried Myrtle incredulously. "Who said I was crazy about him? I never was any more crazy about him than I was about that man there." She pointed suddenly at me, and every one looked at me accusingly. I tried to show by my expression that I had played no part in her past. "The only crazy I was was when I married him. I knew right away I made a mistake. He borrowed somebody's best suit to get married in and never even told me about it, and the man came after it one day when he was out. She looked around to see who was listening: " 'Oh, is that your suit?' I said. 'This is the first I ever heard about it.' But I gave it to him and then I lay down and cried to beat the band all afternoon." "She really ought to get away from him," resumed Catherine to me. "They've been living over that garage for eleven years. And Tom's the first sweetie she ever had." (2.2-7) She begins her affair with Tom Buchanan after he sees her on the train and later presses against her in the station: I was going up to New York to see my sister and spend the night. He had on a dress suit and patent leather shoes and I couldn't keep my eyes off him but every time he looked at me I had to pretend to be looking at the advertisement over his head. When we came into the station he was next to me and his white shirt-front pressed against my armand so I told him I'd have to call a policeman, but he knew I lied. I was so excited that when I got into a taxi with him I didn't hardly know I wasn't getting into a subway train† (2.120). Myrtledesperately wants to come off as sophisticated and wealthy despite herhumble roots. Nick finds her efforts tacky and vulgar, and he spends a lot of time commenting on her clothes, mannerisms, and conversational style. She is oblivious about upper-class life: she tells her sister at one point Tom doesn’t divorce Daisy because Daisy is Catholic. This is a small inside joke on Fitzgerald's part - since Tom and Daisy are part of the community of uber-WASPy residents of East Egg, there's almost nochance that Daisy could be Catholic. That Myrtle thinks accepts Tom's lieshows that she is not a well-schooled as she thinks she is about the life and customs of the elite class she wants to be a part of. Still, before the novel begins, Tom has gotten comfortable showing Myrtlearound in popular restaurants and doesn’t hide the affair. Perhaps this causes Myrtle to misunderstand what she means to Tom: she doesn’t seem to realize she’s just one in a string of mistresses. To see Myrtle's life events alongside those of the other characters, check out our timeline of The Great Gatsby. Want to get better grades and test scores? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. Summary of Myrtle's Action in the Novel The idea of Myrtle Wilson is introduced in Chapter 1, when she callsthe Buchanans’ house to speak to Tom. We get our first look at Myrtle in Chapter 2, when Nick goes with Tom to George Wilson’s garage to meet her, and then to Myrtle’s apartment in Manhattan for a party.On that day, she buys a dog, has sex with Tom (with Nick in the next room), throws a party, and is fawned on by her friends, and then ends up with a broken nose when Tom punches her after she brings up Daisy. This doesn’t prevent her from continuing the affair. Later on, in Chapter 7, George starts to suspect she’s having an affair when he finds her dog’s leash in a drawer at the house. He locks her upstairs in their house, determined to move out west once he gets the money from the car sale he’s waiting on from Tom. Myrtle glimpses Tom, along with Nick and Jordan, as they drive up to Manhattan in Gatsby’s yellow car. Myrtle and George fight later that evening, and Myrtle manages to run out of the house after yelling at George to beat her and calling him a coward. Just then, she spots the yellow car heading back for Long Island. Thinking it’s Tom, she runs toward and then out in front of the car, waving her arms. But Daisy is driving the car, and she decides to run over Myrtle rather than get into a head-on collision with an oncoming car. She hits Myrtle, who dies instantly. Myrtle’s death emotionally and mentally devastates George, which prompts him to murder Gatsby (who he mistakes for both his wife’s killer and lover), and then kill himself. The death car. Key Myrtle Wilson Quotes Mrs. Wilson had changed her costume some time before and was now attired in an elaborate afternoon dress of cream colored chiffon, which gave out a continual rustle as she swept about the room. With the influence of the dress her personality had also undergone a change. The intense vitality that had been so remarkable in the garage was converted into impressive hauteur. Her laughter, her gestures, her assertions became more violently affected moment by moment and as she expanded the room grew smaller around her until she seemed to be revolving on a noisy, creaking pivot through the smoky air. (2.56) Here, we see Myrtle transformed from her more sensuous, physical persona into that of someone desperate to come off as richer than she actually is. Wielding power over her group of friends, she seems to revel in her own image. Unlike Gatsby, who projects an elaborately rich and worldly character, Myrtle’s persona is much more simplistic and transparent. (Notably Tom, who immediately sees Gatsby as a fake, doesn’t seem to mind Myrtle’s pretensions – perhaps because they are of no consequence to him, or any kind of a threat to his lifestyle.) "Daisy! Daisy! Daisy!" shouted Mrs. Wilson. "I'll say it whenever I want to! Daisy! Dai" Making a short deft movement Tom Buchanan broke her nose with his open hand. (2.125-126) Here we see Myrtle pushing her limits with Tom – and realizing that he is both violent and completely unwilling to be honest about his marriage. While both characters are willful, impulsive, and driven by their desires, Tom is violently asserting here that his needs are more important than Myrtle’s. After all, to Tom, Myrtle is just another mistress, and just as disposable as all the rest. Also, this injury foreshadows Myrtle’s death at the hands of Daisy, herself. While invoking Daisy’s name here causes Tom to hurt Myrtle, Myrtle’s actual encounter with Daisy later in the novel turns out to be deadly. "Beat me!" he heard her cry. "Throw me down and beat me, you dirty little coward!" (7.314) When George confronts his wife about her affair, Myrtle is furious and needles at her husband – already insecure since he’s been cheated on – by insinuating he’s weak and less of a man than Tom. Also, their fight centers around her body and its treatment, while Tom and Daisy fought earlier in the same chapter about their feelings. In this moment, we see that despite how dangerous and damaging Myrtle’s relationship with Tom is, she seems to be asking George to treat her in the same way that Tom has been doing. Myrtle's disturbing acceptance of her role as a just a body - a piece of meat, basically - foreshadows the gruesome physicality of her death. Michaelis and this man reached her first but when they had torn open her shirtwaist still damp with perspiration, they saw that her left breast was swinging loose like a flap and there was no need to listen for the heart beneath. The mouth was wide open and ripped at the corners as though she had choked a little in giving up the tremendous vitality she had stored so long. (7.317) Even in death, Myrtle’s physicality and vitality are emphasized. In fact, the image is pretty overtly sexual – notice how it’s Myrtle’s breast that’s torn open and swinging loose, and her mouth ripped open at the corners. This echoes Nick’s view of Myrtle as a woman and mistress, nothing more – even in death she’s objectified. This moment is also much more violent than her earlier broken nose. While that moment cemented Tom as abusive in the eyes of the reader, this one truly shows the damage that Tom and Daisy leave in their wake, and shapes the tragic tone of the rest of the novel. The graphic and bloody nature of Myrtle's death really sticks with you. Common Essay Topics/ Areas of Discussion You will most likelybe asked towrite about Myrtlein relation to other characters (especially Daisy), or in prompts that ask you to compare the â€Å"strivers† in the book (including also Gatsby, George Wilson) with the old money set (Tom, Daisy, Jordan). To learn how best to approach this kind of compare and contrast essay, read our article on common character pairings and how to analyze them. It’s less likely, but not impossible, that you will be assigned a Myrtle-specific essay. In either case, Myrtle’s most important chapters are 2 and 7, so close read those carefully. When writing about her, pay close attention to Myrtle’s interactions with other characters. And if you’re writing an essay that discusses Myrtle as someone trying to live out the American Dream, make sure to address her larger influences and motivations. We’ll take a look at some of these strategies in action below. Why Do Tom and Myrtle Get Together? What Do They See in Each Other? For readers new to Gatsby, Tom and Myrtle’s relationship can seem a bit odd. There is obvious physical chemistry, but it can be hard to see why the classist, misogynist Tom puts up with Myrtle - or why Myrtle accepts Tom's mistreatment. For Tom, the affair – just one in a string he’s had since his honeymoon – is about taking and being able to get whatever he wants. Having an affair is a show of power. Especially since he’s been taking her around popular restaurants in Manhattan (2.4), it’s clear he’s not exactly hiding the relationship – instead, he’s flaunting it. He’s so assured of his place in society as a wealthy man, that he’s free to engage in some risky and socially inappropriate behavior – because he knows no one can actually touch his wealth or social position. For Myrtle, the affair (her first) is about escape from her life with George, and a taste ofa world – Manhattan, money, nice things – she wouldn’t otherwise have access to. It’s clear from how Myrtle moves and speaks that she’s confident and self-assured, and assumes that her relationship with Tom is a permanent ticket into the world of the wealthy – not just a fleeting glimpse. The fact that Tom sees Myrtle as disposable but Myrtle hopes for more in their relationship is painfully apparent at the end of Chapter 2, when she insists on bringing up Daisy, and Tom responds by breaking Myrtle’s nose. But despite this nasty encounter, the two continue their relationship, suggesting that this kind of abuse is the norm for Tom’s affairs, and Myrtle is too eager to stay in the new world she’s found – or even believes that Tom will still leave Daisy for her – that she stays as well. By the end of the novel, Myrtle doesn't seem to have been completelymistaken about Tom's affection for her. After all, Tom says he that he â€Å"cried like a baby† (9.145) when he found dog food for the dog he's bought her in Myrtle’s apartment. Of course, since it's Tom, his grief is probablyself-pitying than selfless. Either way, their relationship is indicative of both their values: Myrtle's ambition and Tom’s callousness. What Does Myrtle’s Life (and Tragic Ending) Say About the American Dream? Myrtle, like George and Gatsby, was obviously not born into money, and instead is relying on her own wits to make it in 1920s America. In a manner quite similar to Gatsby’s, she consciously adopts a different persona to try and get access to a richer circle (while George seems to be the only one relying on honest work – his shop – and honest relationships, through his loyalty to Myrtle, to improve his lot in life). But Myrtle aims too high, and ends up killed when she mistakes Gatsby’s yellow car for Tom’s, and runs out in the road assuming the car will stop for her. In the same way that Gatsby overestimates his value to Daisy, Myrtleoverestimates her value to Tom. Even if Tom had been driving the car, and even if he had stopped for her, he would never have whisked her away from George, divorced Daisy, and married her. Furthermore, the fact she assumed the garish yellow car was Tom’s shows how little she understands the stiff, old money world Tom comes from. Myrtle’s complete misunderstanding of Tom, as well as her violent death, fit the overall cynical message in the book that the American Dream is a false promise to those born outside of the wealthy class in America. As hard as anyone tries, they don’t stand a chance of competing with those in America born into the old money class. They will never understand the strange internal rules that govern the old money set, and will never stand a chance of being their equal. How Does Myrtle's Home Reflect Her Character, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values? This is a prompt that you can obviously use for any of the characters, but it’s especially interesting in Myrtle’s case, since she has two residences: the house above the auto shop that George owns, and the apartment that Tom Buchanan rents for her in the city. Myrtle'shome with George is a dark, hopelessimage of working class life in America: it's an apartment above a baregarage, nestled in the dreadful Valley of Ashes. George is utterly mired in this home, even coated with a thin layer of ash from the factories outside. In contrast, Myrtle is vivacious and free of the ash, which gives her a layer of separation from her actual home. Myrtle’s apartment with Tom is overstuffed and gaudy, and she seems much happier and more at home there. The mix of high-brow pretension in the decor with her low-brow entertainment speaks to how Myrtle values the appearance of wealth and sophistication, but doesn’t actually understand what upper-class taste looks like the way Tom and Daisy Buchanan do. So while the Wilson’s garage is a testament to the struggle of the working class in American in the 1920s, Myrtle and Tom’s apartment is a physical representation of the airs Myrtle puts on and the appearances of wealth she values. Myrtle's taste in decor overlaps quite a bit with King Louis XIV's. Why Exactly Does Myrtle Run Into the Road? One of the novel’s most important events is also one that can be confusing for students: namely, Myrtle’s death at the end ofChapter 7. How exactly does she end up in the road? What does it have to do with her strange encounter with Tom, Nick, and Jordan in the garage earlier in the day? The incident is confusing because we come at it from many narrative angles: Setup from Nick's point of view Michaelis’s inquest testimony about the accident Nick'sdescription of the accident sceneright after Myrtle's death Gatsby's explanation of the accident to Nick after the fact Additional information from Michaelis in Chapter 8 about George’s actions both before and after Myrtle’s death A final revelatory confession from Tom about his role in George's violence in Chapter 9 Piecing together these three takes on the incident, this is what happens, in order: Before the accident, George has begun to suspect Myrtle's affair. George locks Myrtle up above the garage, saying "She’s going to stay there till the day after to-morrow, and then we’re going to move away† (7.3). Michaelis, uncomfortable, finds an excuse to leave. Tom, Jordan, and Nick driveup to the gas station in the yellow car. Tom brags that the car is his. Myrtle looks downstairs and concludes two things: first, that Jordan is Tom’s wife, and second, that Tom owns the yellow car. Later that evening, Myrtle fights with George about being locked up. We don’t see much of this fight. All we know is that she cries â€Å"throw me down and beat me!† (7.314) to George. Meanwhile, Gatsby and Daisy are driving back from Manhattan to East Egg after the Plaza Hotel showdown. Myrtle runs outside. Outside, Myrtle sees the yellow car and assumes it’s Tom on his way back to Long Island. Myrtle runs out to the car, waving her arms, likely because she thinks Tom will stop for her and rescue her from George. At the same time, another car is driving in the opposite direction towards Manhattan. When Daisy sees Myrtle in the road, she has to make a quick decision: either run over Myrtle, or swerve into the oncoming car to avoid Myrtle. Daisy first drives toward the oncoming car, but at the last second, turns back into her own lane and hits and kills Myrtle instead. What’s Next? Still a bit confused about the climax of the novel? Get a detailed recap of Chapters 7,8and 9 to understand exactly how the three deaths play out. Learn more about Myrtle’s marriage and her relationship with Tom over at our post about love and relationships. Still a bit confused about the old money/new money/working class themes? Read about social class in the novel in our post on the role of social classes in this novel. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Psychology Report - memory for text Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Psychology Report - memory for text - Essay Example Results showed that the group in which context was given before reading the passage had performed better in comprehension and recall than the two groups in which no difference on recall was found and that comprehension and recall is significantly correlated when context was given prior to the introduction of material. The procedure is really quite simple. Â  First, you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Â  Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. Â  If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. Â  It is important not to overdo any particular endeavor. Â  That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. Â  In the short run this may not seem important, but complications from doing too many can easily arise. Â  A mistake can be expensive as well. Â  The manipulation of the appropriate mechanisms should be self-explanatory, and we need not dwell on it here. Â  At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Â  Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. Â  It is difficult to foresee any end to this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell. (Bransford & Johnston, 1972, p. 722.) Bransford and Johnston used this passage in their study of comprehension and recall. Two groups of subjects listened to the passage, and were asked to understand and remember it. Â  One group was made to listen to this passage right away while the second group was informed beforehand that the passage was about washing clothes. Â  Bransford and Johnston found that people in the second group were much better at understanding and remembering the passage than those in the first group. Â  The first group had no context in which to incorporate the passage; the second group could readily integrate it into their prior knowledge of washing clothes. Prior knowledge is a factor in